This is somewhat scattered, matching the format in class...
Feel free to email her with additional questions.
- 15 multiple choice
- More involved than D2L quizzes, more to do with in-class discussion
- 2 points each
- 10 prompts for short answer (5 lines), choose 8. 5 points each
- 4 prompts for half page, essayish. Choose 3 of those. 10 points each.
- Read the directions, you'll do great.
- If you choose 9 of the 10 short answer, she'll only look at the first 8.
- Points literally translate to how many "points of information". Can be bullet points...
- On the final there will be a proper essay, but here bullet points is fine.
- Dates - remember the slide where there were a bunch of dates (2nd powerpoint
- When they started settling Iceland - 874
- Commonwealth began (althing established, all land claimed) - 930
- Maybe when the Icelanders converted to Christianity - 1000
- No dates for sagas in particular
- Why did the Icelander's leave Norway? King Harald's rule
- Why Iceland? No indigenous population to displace. Close enough to trade but still be independent.
- No specific founders are important...
- Local assemblies happened 2x a year, larger assemblies also 2x a year, and Althings once a year
- Godi (chieftains)
- Thingmen follow Godis for opportunities to gain honour (children, legal, famine, etc.)
- Chieftains rule
- No writing down, needed Lawspeaker who had to memorize it. Only elected official in Iceland. Ultimate legal authority. Recite 1/3 of the law each year.
- No lawyers - people who knew the law very well and they gave it freely for
honour. No profession, just something that individuals would do. Community
- Mord Valgersson (sp?) expected payment a few times
- Egil (not the good one) accepted payment from Flosi
- Relative value of silver? No.
- What is the Balanced Exchange Model? (see slide, rigorous definition)
- Anything that happens to you or someone that you're connected with needs to be paid for.
- Quid pro quo
- Provide examples...
- Halgerd and Bergthora is an excellent example if you also mention husband's actions. For husbands, balanced by silver, for wives, balanced by killings.
- Kari and the burners - Kari wasn't part of the settlement, allowed (legally) to take blood compensation with Thorgerd. Kari is allowed to take more since he is owed more.
- Bolli jr. gets more settlement from sons since father wasn't compensated
- Kjartan humiliating Bolli in his household for theft done towards him
- Kjartan buys land from Bolli in exchange for theft.
- Egil in exchange for insults
- How was the weight determined?
- Decided by the arbitors and public sentiment.
- Friends tell you how much you could do before you seemed "greedy"
- Value of a man has been established in 1117 to be 48oz of silver
- Peer pressure
- In Iceland, not many.
- Usually attached to legal case at assembly
- In Norway, can also happen in the wild
- Last honourable resort - settlement desired above all else (again, in Iceland)
- When could a duel be ok?
- Literally whenever until Christianity arrived
- Bad dishonourable duels:
- One-sided duels
- Using magic
- Discussions that you remember? Check if there are powerpoints on the material
(this is a good measure).
- In defense of revenge
- Servitude and sexuality
- Article on Laughter
- Emotions in the sagas
- Seidr Magic?
- Bad kind, witchcraft
- Raising earth spirits with runes, using it to drive the king/queen from Norway
- Evil practitioners
- Meant to Harm
Njal as a Christian Hero
- How could we argue this?
- Moderates situations, very peaceful, almost always advocates for arbitration.
- Never carries a weapon except after the death of his son
- Always a proponent of Christianity - one of the first to convert
- His body doesn't burn (similar to a saint)
- Starting the 5th court (even though selfish) as a reason
- Who else could be a Christian hero?
- Kjartan - First to fast during lent in such an amazing way. Kjartan was totally against it, but then became huge proponent. If we interpret avoidance of conflict as a sign of hero, then him not converting friends/family is argument. His willing to be killed by Bolli (turn the other cheek) could be argued.
- King Olaf (in Laxdaela) makes strong push to convert by taking people hostage. Be specific with evidence, but argument exists.
Flosi and Njal after the death of Hoskuld Thrainsson
- Njal added the silk robe, Flosi takes offense
- Motivations for sabotage, reasons why robe was added
Names and Spelling
- Need to know the differences between Thorolfs, etc.
- Know spelling, but many will be typed out.
- People brought weapons. This is notable.
- Demonstrated intellect
- Gained honour by being good poet
- Mend fences, poetry can be currency
- Display emotions - socially acceptable way to display for men.
- Egil's poem about the loss of his sons
- Egil's poem in praise of Erinbjorn (sp?)
- Egil was suicidal, and then his daughter goads him into making a poem, and he feels better
- Related to Runic magic/Odinic magic (myths)
- To insult or Taunt
- Egil's saga has a ton of examples
- Poetry is a way to scribe things
Direct and Indirectness
- Skallgrim gets the axe, it breaks, he writes a poem
- Most direct would have been to take them back to King Erik
- Has a proxy, so not really direct
- Incredibly bold, so somewhat direct
- Thorgerd saves Egil by goading him to write poetry
- Indirect and womanly, allowed since women are supposed to act that way.
- Difficult, relative to other actions
- Rules are different for men and women
- Know how one gains honour
Grounds for divorce?
- Breaking gender roles
- Women wearing breeches
- Men wearing low cut shirts
- No consequences in women acting in a male way
- Men who act in womanly way (Nid) have consequences
Otkel and Sorcery...
- Destroy sorcerers body
- Shallow grave? Seems easier for Draugr...
- Unknown significance...
- Draugrs? Falls under magic
- How are they warded off?
- Prophecy is the only branch of seidr magic that isn't evil since it is shared with the community for the greater good
- Njal's saga - Njal is supernaturally prophetic, or he's just really good at predicting human action. (From literary perspective, foreshadows well)
- Hrut's foreshadowing
TODOs for Me...
Make family diagrams and story summaries for each saga...
Reading for Next Week
- Much shorter (whee!!!)
- Geesly Saga (sp?)
- 60 pages
- Outlaw saga
- Rooting for main character, the outlaw
- Phallic Aggression saga
- More poetry, more insults
- Syllabus missing 1 reading... More info later...
- Quiz opens this Friday